Panchayati Raj in India

By Shijualex at Malayalam Wikipedia, CC BY 3.0,

The state of Rajasthan very first adopted the Panchayat Raj System in Nagaur district on 2nd October 1959. The second state was Andhra Pradesh. In India, the Panchayati Raj Institutions(PRIs) now functions as a system of governance in which gram panchayats are the fundamental units of local administration. The system has three tiers: Gram Panchayat (village level), Panchayat Samiti (block level), and also Zila Parishad (district level). It was regularized in 1992 by the 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj has been celebrating the National Panchayati Raj Day (NPRD) on 24th April since 2010, as on this date, the 73rd Constitutional Amendment came into force in 1993.

The 73rd amendment has an arrangement for devolution of powers and also duties to the panchayats, both for the preparation of socio-economic growth strategies and also the capacity to impose and also collect proper taxes, tolls, and fees — the authority relating to the distribution of powers as well as funds to PRIs vests with the states. The gram panchayat is a village-level management body, with a Sarpanch as its chosen head. The participants of the gram panchayat are elected for five years by the members of Gram Sabha. On 27th August 2009, the Union Cabinet of the Government of India approved 50 percent reservation for women in PRIs. Several states have applied reservation for ladies in PRIs.The bulk of prospects in these Panchayats are women. Under the 15th Finance Commission, Federal government is looking for allotment of Rs one lakh crore for Gram Panchayats over the following five years.

Panchayat Samiti is the intermediate level in Panchayati Raj Institutions. The Panchayat Samiti functions as the web link between Gram Panchayat (Village) and Zilla Parishad (District). These blocks do not hold political elections for the Panchayat Samiti council seats. Instead, the block council consists of all of the Sarpanchas and the Upa Sarpanchas from each Gram Panchayat along with Members of Legislative Assemblies (MLA), members of parliament (MPs), associate members as well as members from the Zilla Parishad who are a part of the block. The Gram Panchayat members nominate their Sarpanch as well as Upa Sarpanch amongst their ranks, which include the option of the chairperson and also vice-chairperson as well. The Executive Officer (EO) is the head of the management area of the Panchayat Samiti.

The District Panchayat also called the Zilla Parishad is the 3rd tier of the Panchayati Raj system. Like the Gram Panchayat, the District Panchayat is likewise an elected body. Chairpersons of Panchayat Samitis likewise stand for the District Panchayat. Like the Panchayat Samiti, the MP and also MLA are additionally members of the district panchayat. The federal government selects the CEO to execute the management of the district Panchayat along with the Chief Accounts Officer, the Principal Planning Officer as well as one or more Deputy Secretaries that function directly under the CEO as well as aid him/her. The Zilla Parishad chairperson is the political head of the district panchayat.


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