NHRC of India is an autonomous statutory body developed on 12 October 1993 as per stipulations of Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, next modified in 2006. Its headquarter is situated in New Delhi. It is the watchdog of human rights in the country, i.e., the civil liberties connected to life, freedom, equal rights and also self-respect of the specific person ensured by Indian Constitution or personified in the worldwide covenants and even enforceable by courts in India. It was established in consonance with the Paris Principles, adopted for the promotion as well as the defense of civil rights in Paris (October 1991) as well as supported by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 December 1993. Human Rights Day is observed yearly on 10 December every year.
NHRC is a multi-member body which includes a Chairman and seven various other members. Out of the seven members, 3 are an ex-officio participant. President designates the Chairman and also members of NHRC on the suggestion of high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister. The Chairperson and even the members of the NHRC are assigned for five years or till the age of 70 years, whichever happens earlier. They can be removed just on the charge of proven misbehavior or incapacity if proven by an inquiry performed by a Supreme Court Judge. Commission likewise has five Specialized Divisions i.e., Regulation Division, Examination Division, Policy Study & Programmes Division, Training Division, and Administration Department.
NHRC examines complaints concerning the violation of human rights, either suo moto or after obtaining a request. It has the power to interfere in any judicial procedures involving any accusation of the offense of human rights. It can go to any jail or any kind of other organization under the control of the State Federal government to see the living problems of the prisoners as well as to make recommendations thereon. It can assess the safeguards given under the Constitution or any regulation for the defense of human rights and also can suggest suitable therapeutic measures. NHRC undertakes and promotes study in the field of human rights. It has the powers of a civil court and can provide interim relief. It additionally has the authority to advise the settlement of compensation or damages. NHRC’s reputation is duly shown in a large number of issues received yearly and the trust reposed in it by the citizens. It can recommend to both the central as well as state federal governments to take proper steps to stop the offense of Civils rights. It sends its yearly report to the President of India who causes it to be laid before each House of Parliament.
There are a number of constraints to NHRC; as an example, NHRC can make recommendations, without the power to enforce it. NHRC does not have any system of examination. In bulk cases, it asks the Central as well as State Federal governments to investigate the instances of the violation of Civils rights. A lot of complaints go unaddressed due to the fact that NHRC can not investigate the grievance after one year of occurrence. The government often outrightly declines recommendation of NHRC, or there is partial compliance with these recommendations. Sometimes NHRC is viewed as a post-retirement destination for judges and also bureaucrats with the political association. Additionally, the inadequacy of funds likewise hinders its working.