Partition of Bengal (1905)

By XrysD - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

The provincial state of Bengal had a populace of virtually 80 million in 1905. The federal government introduced the concept for partition in January 1904, and it took place on October 16, 1905, by Viceroy Curzon. The former region of Bengal was divided into two brand-new provinces– ‘Bengal’ (which consists of western Bengal and the regions of Bihar and also Orissa) and also Eastern Bengal and Assam, with Dacca as the capital.

The motivation for the division was all administrative. Bengal was as big as France and had a considerably larger population. Curzon had mentioned that the eastern area was ignored as well as under-governed and also for this reason, by splitting the region, improved management could be developed there. The other factor for partition is thought to be that the Hindus were in a much better setting in regards to economic status as well as specialist high qualities than the Muslims; and during the pre-Sepoy Mutiny period, Hindu investors had greatly assisted the British while their Muslim equivalents did not. This had made the British upset, and also, therefore, the fruits of Western education were not given to the Muslims but only to the Hindus.

The division was sustained by the Muslims of East Bengal, and their assistance was encouraged by their adverse economic conditions in East Bengal. It was opposed by the enlightened middle class of western Bengal. Bengali Hindus were at the center of political resistance. This involved non-violent and violent demonstrations, boycotts and even an assassination effort against the Governor of the brand-new region of West Bengal. After partition, Hindu resistance took off as the Indian National Congress started the Swadeshi movement. The movement did not get the support of the the Muslims in East Bengal because they had really hoped that a different region would provide more control and hence, they opposed the demonstrations. As a result of these political protests, the two areas of Bengal were reunited in 1911, and also a brand-new division separated the province on linguistic, instead of religious grounds.


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