Buddhist spiritual architecture got established in the Indian Subcontinent in the 3rd century BCE. Three sorts of frameworks are related to the religious style of early Buddhism: monasteries (viharas), places to respect antiques (stupas), and also shrines or prayer halls (chaityas additionally called chaitya grihas), which later happened to be called temples in some areas.
Vihara contained a central hall with tiny cells around in which the monks lived. During the Ashokan period, these caverns were just ordinary spaces. At a later phase, these areas were enhanced with decorative columns and also other pieces of sculpture. The living cells are small in size; they open out on to the main hall. They are sufficient for a person to reside. The living cells are carved out of the rock.
The stupa, which traces its origin to the pre-Buddhist burial mounds, was a hemispherical dome or pile constructed over a spiritual antique, either of Buddha himself or a sanctified monk. The antique was normally maintained in a casket in a smaller sized chamber in the facility of the base of the stupa. Some of the most splendid Buddhist sculptures enhance the portals and stone barriers that border stupas. These mounds were constructed to enshrine the relics of the Buddha or a Buddhist educator. Relief carvings highlight the life and mentors of the Buddha. Of the stupa barriers which survived, the earliest is the one at Bharhut (currently taken down and also lodged at the museum at Calcutta) which dates to the 2nd century B.C. This much better-known stupa at Sanchi was bigger during this period. The stupa itself did not supply much scope for an architect. Caverns were dug in the hillside and were used as temples or holy places by monks. Where the excavation of a cavern was made along with a generous donation from a customer, enthusiastic attempts were made to mimic the entire complex of the stupa, worshiping hall (Chaitya), abbey (vihara) as it had actually been developed in architectural, totally free-standing buildings. Therefore the other sophisticated caves, such as those in the western Deccan, particularly at Karle, contains a relatively complicated framework all reduced into a rock.
Chaitya was a hall of worship. It was a rectangular hall with numerous columns and a semi-circular roofing system. The main door had a big window, the only resource of day-light. There was a stupa at the end of the hall. The main hall had two aisles, one on either side divided by a row of pillars.