The National Green Tribunal (NGT) was developed on October 18, 2010, under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010, passed by the Central Government. The specified objective of the Central Federal government was to offer a technoscientific discussion forum for efficient as well as quick disposal of cases relating to environmental security, preservation of forests and for seeking compensation for problems triggered due to violation of environmental legislations or conditions defined while giving authorizations.
Following the implementation of the said legislation, the Principal Bench of the NGT has been established in the National Capital– New Delhi, with regional benches in Pune (Western Area Bench), Bhopal (Central Area Bench), Chennai (Southern Bench) and Kolkata (Eastern Bench). Each Bench has a specified geographical territory covering several States in a region. There is additionally a system for circuit benches. For example, the Southern Area bench, which is based in Chennai, can determine to have sittings in other places like Bangalore or Hyderabad.
The Chairman of the NGT is a retired Judge of the Supreme Court, Head Quartered in Delhi. Various other Judicial participants are retired Judges of High Courts. Each bench of the NGT will include at least one Judicial Member as well as one Expert Participant. Specialist participants should have specialist credentials and a minimum of 15 years experience in the area of environment/forest conservation and associated subjects.
The NGT has the authority to hear all civil cases connecting to ecological issues as well as inquiries that are linked to the execution of laws provided in Schedule I of the NGT Act. Notably, the NGT has not been vested with powers to hear any issue associating with the Wildlife (Security) Act, 1972, the Indian Forest Act, 1927 and different laws established by States associating with forests, tree conservation, and so on. For that reason, particular and significant issues related to these regulations can not be raised before the NGT.
The NGT is not bound by the system put down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, however, will be guided by concepts of all-natural justice. Further, NGT is also not bound by the rules of evidence as preserved in the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. Therefore, it will be relatively more straightforward (rather than approaching a court) for conservation groups to present truths as well as problems before the NGT, consisting of pointing out technical defects in a task or recommending choices that might reduce ecological damages but which have not been considered. While passing Orders/decisions/awards, the NGT will apply the concepts of sustainable development, the precautionary concept, as well as the polluter pays principles. If the NGT holds that a claim is incorrect, it can enforce expenses including lost advantages as a result of any interim order.