AO Hume established the Indian National Congress during the reign of Governor-General Lord Duffering. Its 1st session was held at Bombay in 1885 under the presidency of W C Banerjee. The Congress split right into two parts-Moderates and Extremists in the year 1907 at the Surat Session of Congress, which was likewise commonly referred to as ‘Surat Split.’ Differences between Moderates as well as Extremist leadership of Congress are as follows:
1) The moderates believed in steady reforms, whereas the nationalists believed that the swaraj(self-rule) is their birthright.
2) The moderates were firm believers in the theory of mendicancy; however, the extremists protested against it.
3) Moderates protested a full-scale resistance against the British, but the nationalists wished to stimulate the entire country against the British rule.
4) The moderates believed that the British might be convinced to see the justness of their needs and on the other hand, the nationalists were of the view that the demands might be understood only by putting pressure on the British Government.
5) The moderate leaders were sent out to prisons, but the nationalists were defeated, cuffed, and also sent to jail numerous times.
6) Moderates were motivated by the suggestions of western thinkers like Mill, Burke, Spencer, and also Bentham. Moderates imbibed western ideas of liberalism, democracy, equity, and even freedom whereas the extremist’s ideological inspiration was Indian History, Social heritage, universal education, as well as Hindu traditional symbols. Therefore, they revitalized the Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to incite the masses.
7) A couple of examples of moderate leaders were W.C Banerjee, Justice Ranade, Surendranath Banerjee as well as Dadabhai Naoroji. Examples of extremists leaders consist of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and also Bipin Chandra Pal.