Medieval Indian Literature

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By Anonymous - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=35220722

In the very early middle ages period in northern India, Sanskrit continued to be the language of literary works. This is the period of the works of two writers in Kashmir-Somadeva’s Kathasaritsagar and also Kalhana’s Rajataringini. Rajataringini is a work of great value as this is the first historical work in India. An additional renowned work of this period is Gitagovinda by Jayadeva. It is among the most beautiful poems in Sanskrit literature.

Among the earliest works in an ancient form of Hindi was Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai. It is a work with heroic acts of Prithviraj Chauhan. Another vital Sanskrit work of this period is Bilhana’s VikramankadevaCharita, a bio of the Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI. This period also saw growth in Dravidian languages. Nripatunga wrote a magnum opus of poetry in Kannada called the Kavirajamarga. Pampa composed the Adipurana and Vikramarjuna-Vijaya with the former taking care of the life of the first Jain Tirthankara and also the latter based on the Mahabharata. Ponna wrote the Shantipurana, an epic background of the 16th Tirthankara. Another fantastic Kannada writer was Ranna a contemporary of Pampa and Ponna. Two of the renowned works are the Ajitapurana as well as Gadayuddha.

Kamban created the Ramayanam in Tamil. This was the duration of the make-up of the great hymns of the Alvars and the Nayanars. The hymns of the Alvars are gathered into the Nalayira- Divyanam in Tamil. This was the duration of the make-up of the terrific hymns of the Alvars and the Nayanars. The hymns of the Alvars are accumulated into the Nalayira- Divya Prabandham. Several of the Nayanar works are the Thiruvasagam, the Thirumanairam and also Thiruttondattogai.

The Delhi Sultanate saw beautiful advancement in the growth of Indian languages and also literature. Braj Bhasha, as well as Khari Boli, began to be utilized in literary compositions. The renowned Rajasthani ballad Alha Udal and the Vishaldeo Raso come from this period. Mulla Daud composed the earliest rhyme in Awadhi language called Chandayana. Persian was the court language of the Sultanate. A very notable contribution of the Turks remained in the field of historical, literary works in Persian. There were several chroniclers in this period. Ziauddin Barani wrote the Tarikh-i- Firozshahi which provides a thorough account of Khaljis and also Tughlaqs. He also wrote a work on a political theory called the Fatawa-i-Jahandari. The most outstanding literary figure in this period was Amir Khusrau. He was a poet, chronicler, mystic as well as author of music. He was likewise an adherent of Nizamuddin Auliya. He composed the Ashiqa, the Nuh Saphir, the QiranalSadayan, the Khazain-ul- Futuh and numerous works of poetry.

The local kingdoms provided an extraordinary stimulus to local languages and also literature. There were two main types of Hindi in this period- Bhojpuri and Awadhi. Kabir created in Bhojpuri, and even his dohas or couplets have come to be a component of the folklore. Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the Padmavat in Awadhi. The renowned Ramacharitmanas by Tulsidas was also created in Awadhi in this period. Qutban, a devotee of the Sufi saint Shaikh Burhan, wrote the Mrigavati.

In Bengali, the Ramayana by Krittivasa and the hundreds of verses by the famous poet Chandidas were created under the patronage of the rulers. With Chaitanya, the custom of writing religious songs began. Narasi Mehta composed religious tunes in Gujarati as well as Namdev and Eknath in Marathi. Under king Krishnadeva Raya, Telugu literary works got to brand-new heights. He was Telugu and also Sanskrit writer. He composed the Vishnuchittiya. The various other well-known poets in his court were Allasani Peddana that wrote the Manucharita. Dhurjati created the Kalahasti Mahatamya. In Mughal India, Babbar was among the leaders of Turkish verse as well as additionally author of bio in Turkish Babarnama. Gulbadan Begum, sister of Humayun, created the Humayun Nama. Jahangir wrote his autobiography the Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri. Aurangzeb likewise was a prolific author and also the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was a noteworthy Urdu poet.

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