The Literature of Nationalism, Reformism and Revivalism


Patriotic writings multiplied virtually spontaneously in different languages, as the resistance of a community against foreign rule. Rangalal in Bengali, Mirza Ghalib in Urdu and Bharatendu Harishchandra in Hindi expressed themselves as the patriotic voice of that era. This voice was, on the one hand, against colonial rule, and on the other, for the glorification of India. Besides, Mirza Ghalib composed ghazals in Urdu, about love, with different images and allegories. He accepted life both as a beautiful presence and also as a dark and unpleasant experience. Michael Madhusudan Dutt created the very first contemporary legendary in an Indian language, and even naturalized empty knowledgeable in Bengali. Subramania Bharati was the great Tamil patriot-poet, who reinvented the poetic tradition in Tamil. Themes from folklore or history were taken to write impressive, by Maithili Saran Gupta (Hindi), Bhai Vir Singh (Punjabi), and also others, with the specific purpose of fulfilling the requirements of the patriotic viewers.

The birth of the novel is connected with the social reform-oriented movement of the 19th century. This new category, obtained from the West, is identified by a spirit of rebellion, right from its fostering into the Indian system. The initial Tamil novel, ‘Pratap Mudaliyar Charitram’ by Samuel V. Pillai, the initial Telugu story, ‘Sri Ranga Raja Charitra’ by Krishnamma Chetty, and the very first Malayalam novel, ‘Indu Lekha’ by Chandu Menon were written with educational objectives and also to re-examine evil social customs as well as methods like untouchability, caste distinctions, denial of remarriage of widows, and so on. In other very first stories, like the Bengali story, ‘Phulmani O Karunar Bibaran,’ by an Englishwoman, H. Catherine Mullens, or the Hindi novel, ‘Pariksha Guru’ by Lala Sriniwas Das, one can uncover shared patterns of action as well as expression in the direction of social issues.

Memorable stories were created by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (Bengali), Hari Narayan Apte (Marathi), as well as others, to explain the remarkable past of India, and to infuse nationalist fervor in her citizens. Novels were found to be one of the most appropriate mechanisms to eulogize the intellectual and also physical splendor of the past, and also reminded Indians regarding their commitments and rights. Actually, in the 19th century, the concept of nationwide identification arises from literature, and even most Indian writings developed into the voice of enlightenment. This led the way for India to recognize the real, valid setting by the time it got to the threshold of the 20th century. It was throughout this time that Tagore began composing the novel ‘Gora’ (1910 ), to test colonial regulation, colonial requirements and imperial authority, as well as to provide new meaning to Indian nationalism.


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